Biological signals regulate food intake, according to John Allred, Ph.D., Ohio State University nutrition professor.
During a three-week study involving 25 male college students, a Carnation Instant Breakfast was served every day at lunch. Some shakes were prepared with whole milk, some with skim milk, and some consisted of skim milk and sugar.
Students who consumed the fatty, low-carb, whole-milk drinks compensated by eating less fat and more carbs later. Those who drank the low-fat, low-cal, skim-milk shakes ultimately upped their calorie intake, and those who drank the high-carb, low-fat shakes ate more fat but fewer carbohydrates throughout the afternoon.